They were ruthless!
I speak of the Mongols who conquered many lands from 1200 to 1400. Many military leaders have learned tactics and strategies from the Mongol Conquests.
Who are the Mongols?
Mongol stands for the people who are native to the inner China region of Mongolia and the country of Mongolia. Today, there are Mongolian natives who reside all around the world. But the highest percentage still live in the China region I mentioned above.
Today, I am going to give you 12 facts about the Mongol Conquests as well as facts about Mongol soldiers and leaders.
These facts are in no particular order. I’m just sharing them as I find them.
Fact #1: First Leader
The one who started the Mongol conquests rolling was their leader, Genghis Khan. He is considered the Father of Mongolia. Genghis Khan died in 1227 and he was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia.
Fact #2: The Mongol Women Were Strong Too
While the men of Mongolia were out capturing lands, someone had to keep the home front in order. Mongolian women ran the businesses, kept the homes and raised children. And there were female Mongolian political leaders too.
Fact #3: Experts On Horses
At 3 years old, male children were tied to a horse by his Mother. By being tied, they would not fall off and the horse would run full speed. As the child adapted to the horse, he would soon be presented with a bow and arrows.
Fact #4: The Mongols Dominated The 13th Century
The Mongolian Army was not huge, but it relied on superior tactics and speed, and was like one massive well-disciplined cavalry. They moved quickly and adapted to various situations. The Mongolian Army used complex battle strategies.
Fact #5: Genghis Khan Had Many Non-War Feats
Many people think that Genghis Khan was a mad man who just killed and plundered. Not true! Genghis Khan did:
- Granted complete religious freedom to his subjects
- Abolished forms of torture
- Was a supporter and encouraged trade
- and He developed the first international postal system
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Fact #6: “Who Shot My Horse?”
The year was 1201 and Genghis and his army were in battle. The great Khan was shot in the neck. When he asked those still living from the army the Mongols defeated who shot his horse, the warrior was brought forward and said he did not shoot the horse, he shot Khan himself.
The captured soldier told Genghis Khan he would not beg for mercy; if he desired to kill him, so be it. But if Khan let him live, he would be a loyal servant.
Genghis Khan made the man a General in the Mongolian Army.
Fact #7: Soldiers Had To Pay
In the early days of Mongol Conquests, Mongol warriors had to pay to be a soldier in the army.
While this may seem odd, we must remember that the Mongol soldiers plundered booty from the attacks they made.
That warrior would then have to pay qubchur to their commander for the booty they had pocketed from each battle.
Fact #8: Nature Saved Japan From The Mongols
Kublai Khan desperately wanted to conquer Japan. In 1274, the Mongol forces began to go after Japan but a typhoon wiped out over 70% of their troops.
Khan again went after Japan in 1281 and again, the mighty winds of a typhoon took out about 90% of the Mongols.
Nature saved Japan from the Mongol conquests.
Fact #9: Conquered Lands Under Genghis Khan
While the great Genghis Khan was alive, the lands he led his troops to conquer was the majority of China and Central Asia.
Many say that this was more in retaliation for his family being wronged earlier in time.
Fact #10: Destroyed, Vassalage And Decimated
These are the lands, rulers and fortresses the Mongols made their conquests:
- Western Xia
- Volga Bulgaria
- Tatar Confederation
- Jin Dynasty
- Qara Khitai
- Song Dynasty
- Khwarazmian Empire
- Kievan Rus’
- Kimek Khanate
- Armenian Cilicia
- County of Tripoli
- Kingdom of Georgia
- Second Bulgarian Empire
- Sukhothai Kingdom
Fact #11: The Mongol Toll Road
The Mongols found a way to control the nearly 4,000 miles of the Silk Road. The trade route from Europe to China.
The Mongols gladly allowed traders through, but for an expensive toll.
Fact #12: Armor Piercing Arrows
The Mongols discovered how they could pierce the heavy armor of some enemies.
Arrow heads were heated until red hot and immediately dipped into salt water. This made them extra strong to go through heavy armor.
Fact of the matter is, the Mongols were a mighty force. Many battles they went into, they were outnumbered. But by using superior war tactics, they would defeat enemy forces twice their size.
I highly recommend checking out the reference links, as they can tell you much more about the Mongols.
Thanks for visiting and please leave questions and comments below.
About The Author
Greg Boudonck is a full time freelance writer and the author of over 50 books. He served in the United States Army in the early 1980’s and enjoys writing about military subjects. You can see Greg’s books on Amazon by searching his name and you can also visit his website at Lancerlife.com.